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Orlick is suspected of the attack. Mrs Joe becomes kind-hearted after the attack. Pip's former schoolmate Biddy joins the household to help with her care.

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Four years into Pip's apprenticeship, Mr Jaggers, a lawyer, informs him that he has been provided with money from an anonymous benefactor, allowing him to become a gentleman. Pip is to leave for London, but presuming that Miss Havisham is his benefactor, he first visits her. Herbert and Pip have previously met at Satis Hall, where Herbert was rejected as a playmate for Estella. Pip meets fellow pupils, Bentley Drummle, a brute of a man from a wealthy noble family, and Startop, who is agreeable. Jaggers disburses the money Pip needs. Pip returns there to meet Estella and is encouraged by Miss Havisham, but he avoids visiting Joe.

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He is disquieted to see Orlick now in service to Miss Havisham. He mentions his misgivings to Jaggers, who promises Orlick's dismissal. Pip meets Estella when she is sent to Richmond to be introduced into society. Pip and Herbert build up debts. Mrs Joe dies and Pip returns to his village for the funeral. With the help of Jaggers' clerk, Wemmick, Pip plans to help advance Herbert's future prospects by anonymously securing him a position with the shipbroker, Clarriker's. Pip takes Estella to Satis House.

She and Miss Havisham quarrel over Estella's coldness. Later, at an Assembly Ball in Richmond, Pip witnesses Estella meeting Bentley Drummle and warns her about him; she replies that she has no qualms about entrapping him. A week after he turns 23 years old, Pip learns that his benefactor is the convict he encountered in the churchyard, Abel Magwitch, who had been transported to New South Wales after beindg captured. He has become wealthy after gaining his freedom there but cannot return to England on pain of death.

However, he returns to see Pip, who was the motivation for all his success. Pip is shocked, and stops taking money from him. Magwitch shares his past history with Pip, and reveals that the escaped convict whom he fought in the churchyard was Compeyson, the fraudster who had deserted Miss Havisham. Pip returns to Satis Hall to visit Estella and meets Bentley Drummle, who has also come to see her and now has Orlick as his servant.

Pip accuses Miss Havisham of misleading him about his benefactor. She admits to doing so, but says that her plan was to annoy her relatives. Pip declares his love to Estella, who, coldly, tells him that she plans on marrying Drummle. Heartbroken, Pip walks back to London, where Wemmick warns him that Compeyson is seeking him. Pip and Herbert continue preparations for Magwitch's escape.

At Jaggers's house for dinner, Wemmick tells Pip how Jaggers acquired his maidservant, Molly, rescuing her from the gallows when she was accused of murder. Then, full of remorse, Miss Havisham tells Pip how the infant Estella was brought to her by Jaggers and raised by her to be cold-hearted.

The Imagination of Charles Dickens (RLE Dickens)

She knows nothing about Estella's parentage. She also tells Pip that Estella is now married. She gives Pip money to pay for Herbert Pocket's position at Clarriker's, and asks for his forgiveness. As Pip is about to leave, Miss Havisham accidentally sets her dress on fire. Pip saves her, injuring himself in the process. She eventually dies from her injuries, lamenting her manipulation of Estella and Pip.

Pip now realises that Estella is the daughter of Molly and Magwitch. When confronted about this, Jaggers discourages Pip from acting on his suspicions. A few days before Magwitch's planned escape, Pip is lured by an anonymous letter into a sluice house near his old home, where he is seized by Orlick, who intends to kill him.

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Orlick confesses to injuring Pip's sister. As Pip is about to be struck by a hammer, Herbert Pocket and Startop arrive to rescue him. The three of them pick up Magwitch to row him to the steamboat for Hamburg, but they are met by a police boat carrying Compeyson, who has offered to identify Magwitch. Magwitch seizes Compeyson, and they fight in the river.

Seriously injured, Magwitch is taken by the police. Compeyson's body is found later. Pip is aware that Magwitch's fortune will go to the crown after his trial. But Herbert, who is preparing to move to Cairo , Egypt, to manage Clarriker's office there, offers Pip a position there. Pip always visits Magwitch in the prison hospital as he awaits trial, and on Magwitch's deathbed tells him that his daughter Estella is alive.

After Herbert's departure for Cairo, Pip falls ill in his rooms, and faces arrest for debt. However, Joe nurses Pip back to health and pays off his debt.

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When Pip begins to recover, Joe slips away. Pip then returns to propose to Biddy, only to find that she has married Joe. Pip asks Joe's forgiveness, promises to repay him and leaves for Cairo. There he shares lodgings with Herbert and Clara, and eventually advances to become third in the company.


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Only then does Herbert learn that Pip paid for his position in the firm. Then in the ruins of Satis House he meets the widowed Estella, who asks Pip to forgive her, assuring him that misfortune has opened her heart. As Pip takes Estella's hand and they leave the moonlit ruins, he sees "no shadow of another parting from her. As Dickens began writing Great Expectations , he undertook a series of hugely popular and remunerative reading tours.

His domestic life had, however, disintegrated in the late s and he had separated from his wife, Catherine Dickens , and was having a secret affair with the much younger Ellen Ternan. It has been suggested that the icy teasing of the character Estella is based Ellen Ternan's reluctance to become Dickens's mistress. There is also a reference to a "knowing man", a possible sketch of Bentley Drummle.

Wills, in which Dickens speaks of recycling an "odd idea" from the Christmas special " A House to Let " and "the pivot round which my next book shall revolve. In an 8 August letter to Thomas Carlyle , Dickens reported his agitation whenever he prepared a new book.

Dickens was pleased with the idea, calling it "such a very fine, new and grotesque idea" in a letter to Forster. In the end, the hero loses the money because it is forfeited to the Crown. In his biography of Dickens, Forster wrote that in the early idea "was the germ of Pip and Magwitch, which at first he intended to make the groundwork of a tale in the old twenty-number form.

As the idea and Dickens's ambition grew, he began writing. Dickens "called a council of war", and believed that to save the situation, "the one thing to be done was for [him] to strike in.

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The magazine continued to publish Lever's novel until its completion on 23 March , [40] but it became secondary to Great Expectations. Immediately, sales resumed, and critics responded positively, as exemplified by The Times ' s praise: " Great Expectations is not, indeed, [Dickens's] best work, but it is to be ranked among his happiest. Dickens, whose health was not the best, felt "The planning from week to week was unimaginably difficult" but persevered.

In late December, Dickens wrote to Mary Boyle that " Great Expectations [is] a very great success and universally liked. Dickens gave six readings from 14 March to 18 April , and in May, Dickens took a few days' holiday in Dover.


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